The Holliday-Segar nomogram approximates daily fluid loss and therefore daily fluid requirements as follows: Hospitalized patients often have conditions that interfere with their ability to regulate their hydration status. Poor fluid management leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Careful consideration of the type and amount of fluid required for each patient is crucial. This activity reviews the assessment and treatment of patients` fluid needs and highlights the importance of an interprofessional team treating patients in shock. Caution should be exercised when applying these weight-based formulas to elderly or obese patients.  Unfortunately, there are currently no standardized guidelines to guide intravenous maintenance therapy in adults. It would be beyond the scope of this article to deal with the nuances of choice between different tones and volumes of fluid administration. These decisions require clinical evaluation based on the patient`s initial fluid status and predictions of ongoing fluid requirements. The electrolyte imbalances discussed below in the Complications section show potential problems arising from certain fluid decisions. Next, calculate the infant`s maintenance fluid requirements and check them with the calculator: Total fluid requirements = maintenance + deficit replacement + compensation for current losses The paediatric population must consider a child`s height when determining its water retention rate. A 3-month-old infant has very different fluid requirements than an 8-year-old adult child. In many cases, a simple calculation called the 4-2-1 rule can determine the hourly fluid maintenance rate required for a child based on weight.
 The following example shows an application of this formula. The preferred type of fluid for intravenous maintenance is 0.9% sodium chloride with 5% glucose It is clinically useful to start fluid therapy by estimating normal maintenance needs using the estimated calorie consumption method. Resting energy expenditure in healthy children is very different from that of children with acute illness or after surgery. Hypotonic fluids containing sodium under plasma are NOT recommended for routine use in children. These fluids are associated with morbidity/mortality secondary to hyponatremia and nutritionists and dietitians help determine patients` caloric needs to ensure they meet their metabolic needs, which are especially important in acute illnesses so that the body can heal properly. This is especially important in the pediatric population for infants who drink breast or formula. Pharmacists can recommend optimal fluid replacement formulations above IV, as well as nutritionists for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). TPN is sometimes necessary as a temporary measure for patients who cannot take enteral fluid intake, but it presents various challenges, such as the need for central venous access and the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Only with a fully interprofessional approach to fluid management can patient outcomes be optimized. [Level 5] To prevent dehydration and make sure your body has the fluids it needs, make water your beverage of choice. It`s a good idea to drink a glass of water: these recommendations refer to liquids from water, other beverages, and food. About 20% of daily fluid intake usually comes from food and the rest from beverages.
An infant with severe gastroenteritis requires fluid rehydration and cannot tolerate enteral fluids. It is decided to carry out treatment of IV fluid The child before this disease 10 kg, but its current weight is 9 kg. She has clinical symptoms consistent with severe dehydration of 10% monitor peripheral edema, pulmonary edema or hepatomegaly. It is important to consider underlying cardiac dysfunction or renal failure and adjust the volume of administration accordingly. These patients may need a lower level of maintenance fluid than their body weight. IV liquid bags contain a large volume of overflow; One Baxter brand sachet of 1 L of 5% glucose contains an average volume of 1035 ml (51.75 grams of glucose). To prepare a 10% solution, remove 120 ml from the 1-liter sachet of 5% glucose and discard. Add 110 ml of 50% glucose. The final solution contains 100 grams in 1025 ml (about 10% glucose) To restore hydration, it is first necessary to calculate the degree of dehydration. In children with mild to moderate dehydration, enteral rehydration (oral or NG) is preferred.
IV fluid rehydration may be necessary for children with severe dehydration or those who may not tolerate enteral intake Underestimating the importance of good fluid management is difficult. Careful consideration of each patient`s current clinical status and relevant medical history when establishing a fluid management strategy is essential to avoid iatrogenic problems such as dehydration, volume overload, electrolyte imbalances or pH imbalances. Close communication between all members of the health care team can alleviate these problems. Maintenance laws should be applied to most sick children unless they are dehydrated. Sick children are likely to secrete excess DHA and therefore need less fluid to avoid water overload and hyponatremia Children with the following conditions are at high risk of excessive DHA secretion and may need additional fluid restriction – seek advice from an older adult: Fluid management is an essential aspect of patient care, especially in the hospital medical setting. What makes fluid management both challenging and interesting is that each patient must carefully consider their individual fluid needs. Unfortunately, it is impossible to apply a single and perfect formula universally to all patients. However, a general principle for all patient scenarios is to replace lost fluid as accurately as possible.
These fluid losses can vary depending on the patient`s state of health and differ in both volume and composition. For example, a patient hospitalized for severe burns has a much greater loss of fluid than a relatively healthy patient who is not allowed to anything by mouth and is waiting for surgery. A patient admitted for dehydration due to severe diarrhoea may require a different fluid composition than a patient admitted with hypovolemic shock due to rapid upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The calculation of maintenance fluid requirements in this table applies to all age groups, including infants. Babies need a higher volume of enteral milk (150-180 ml/kg/day) to meet nutritional and growth needs, but this higher volume should not be used as a basis for prescribing intravenous fluid. The prescription of intravenous fluid to an infant should be based on water requirements (i.e. 100 ml/kg/day up to 10 kg, and then adjust according to clinical indications (e.g. limit to 2/3 maintenance) This volume of fluid Do not include in subsequent calculations Treat shock with liquid IV boluses to restore circulatory volume: Another commonly used formula predicts fluid requirements over a 24-hour period.
The following example shows an application of this formula. No one formula is right for everyone. But learning more about your body`s fluid needs will help you estimate how much water you need to drink each day. So how much fluid does the average healthy adult living in a temperate climate need? The U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine have found that adequate daily hydration is: No. You don`t have to rely solely on water to meet your fluid needs. What you eat also provides a significant portion. For example, many fruits and vegetables such as watermelon and spinach contain almost 100% water by weight.
The best way to manage fluids is to use the efforts of an interprofessional health team. Interprofessional discussions within the healthcare team can optimize proper fluid management for patients admitted to hospital.  Bedside nurses often spend more time with their patients than any other member of the patient and can provide useful estimates of patient volume status by documenting vital signs and frequent visual assessments. Nurses can also help assess patients` ability to tolerate enteral fluids and encourage patients to drink orally if there is no NPO prescription that would prevent them from doing so. Glucose 5% should be administered in maintenance fluids for children without any other source of glucose A normal saline solution is a slightly acidic solution compared to normal body pH. This can trigger metabolic acidosis.  Ringer`s lactated solution is an approximation closer to normal body pH; However, the use of breastfed wrestlers versus regular saline for fluid maintenance management often depends on availability in each hospital setting and is an evolving paradigm discussed at the national level. A reassessment of the child`s fluid status, including any ongoing loss, should be performed within 6 hours. You may need to change your total fluid intake based on several factors: Children with severe electrolyte or glycemic abnormalities Shock requiring ≥40 ml/kg IV fluid bolus Children who need care beyond the comfort of the local hospital For emergency and pediatric or neonatal counselling Intensive transfers, see Recovery Services The following diagram is from his original publication «The maintenance need for water in parenteral» fluid therapy», Pediatrics 1957.